Spatial relationship between fracture fragments

Distraction, displacement, angulation, or shortening (overriding) may occur. Distraction is separation in the longitudinal axis. Displacement is the degree to which the fractured ends are out of alignment with each other; it is described in millimeters or bone width percentage. Angulation is the angle of the distal fragment measured from the proximal fragment. Displacement and angulation may occur in the ventral-dorsal plane, lateral-medial plane, or both.

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