Distraction, displacement, angulation, or shortening (overriding) may occur. Distraction is separation in the longitudinal axis. Displacement is the degree to which the fractured ends are out of alignment with each other; it is described in millimeters or bone width percentage. Angulation is the angle of the distal fragment measured from the proximal fragment. Displacement and angulation may occur in the ventral-dorsal plane, lateral-medial plane, or both.
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