Tables

T1T2Significance
TYPE I-+edema
TYPE II++/- (or slight)fatty degeneration
TYPE III--bony sclerosos

SubstanceHU
Air-1000
Fat-120
Water0
Blood+30 to +45
Muscle+40
Contrast+130
Bone+400 or more

HU
Lungs-950 to -550
Kidneys+20 to +40
Heart+40 to +100
Liver+50 to +70
Spongiose Bone+50 to +200
Compact bone+250 to +1000

Lesion Grade 0Lesion Grade 1Lesion Grade 2Lesion Grade 3Lesion Grade 4
Normal meniscusOne or more signal changes point without continuity with the articular surface. (degenerative)Linear signal change without extension to the articular surface. (degenerative+/-traumatic)Change signal linear extension to the joint surface. (rupture)Fragmentation, possible dislocation

AVM sizeAdjacent eloquent cortex Draining veins
Under 3 cm = 1 Non-eloquent = 0Superficial only = 0
3-6 cm = 2Eloquent* = 1Deep veins = 1
Over 6 cm = 3

Category I: Malignant risk less than 1%; no follow-up requiredCategory II: Malignant risk less than 3%; no follow-up required
Cystic lesion with some abnormal radiological features
Category IIF: Malignant risk 5-10%; follow-up recommended
Cystic lesion with increased abnormal findings
Category III: Malignant risk 40-60%; surgical excision recommended
More complicated
Category IV: Malignant risk greater than 80%; surgical excision recommended
– uncomplicated, simple benign cyst
– anechoic, posterior enhancement ( through transmission), round or oval shape, thin, smooth wall
– homogeneous water content, sharp delineation with the renal parenchyma, no calcification, enhancement or wall-thickening
– <1 mm septations (hairline thin)
– fine calcifications within the septum or wall
– <3 cm in diameter
– hyperdense cysts (>20 Hounsfield units)
– multiple thin septum
– septa thicker than hairline or slightly thick wall
– calcification, which may be thick
– intrarenal, >3 cm
– no contrast enhancement
– uniform wall thickening/nodularity
– thick/irregular calcification
– thick septa
– enhances with contrast
– large cystic components
– irregular margins/prominent nodules
– solid enhancing elements, independent of septa

 

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