Bladder tumor IVP

Bladder cancer is any of several types of malignancy arising from the epithelial lining (i.e., the urothelium) of the urinary bladder. Rarely the bladder is involved by non-epithelial cancers, such as lymphoma or sarcoma, but these are not ordinarily included in the colloquial term “bladder cancer.” It is a disease in which abnormal cells multiply […]
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Intravenous Urography

An intravenous pyelogram or IVP for short is a radiological procedure used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. An injection of x-ray contrast medium is given to a patient via a needle or cannula into the vein, typically in the arm. The contrast is excreted or removed from […]
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Kidney stones

Kidney stones (ureterolithiasis) result from stones or renal calculi in the ureter. The stones are solid concretions or calculi (crystal aggregations) formed in the kidneys from dissolved urinary minerals. Nephrolithiasis refers to the condition of having kidney stones. Urolithiasis refers to the condition of having calculi in the urinary tract (which also includes the kidneys), […]
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Duplicated ureter

Duplicated ureter is a congenital condition in which the ureteric bud, the embryological origin of the ureter, splits (or arises twice), resulting in two ureters draining a single kidney. It is the most common renal abnormality, occurring in approximately 1% of the population. The additional ureter may result in a ureterocele, or an ectopic ureter. […]
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Bladder & Urethra

¬†When empty, the bladder lies on the pelvic floor surrounded by extraperiotoneal fatty tissue, posterior to the pubic bones. As it fills, it ascends in the extraperitoneal fatty tissue and enters the greater pelvis, reaching as high as the level of the umbilicus when full. In males, it is situated anterior to the rectum and […]
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Ureters

The ureters exit medially from the kidney at the renal hilum posterior to the renal vessels , then course inferomedially along the psoas major muscle and transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. They cross the external iliac artery just distal to the bifurcation of the common iliac, then course along the lateral wall of the […]
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